- Sir Samuel Hoare served as British foreign minister in 1935 in the government of Samuel Baldwin. His opposite number in France was Pierre Laval. At the beginning of December 1935, Hoare and Laval agreed to resolve the international crisis provoked by Benito Mussolini’s invasion of Ethiopiain October by offering to cede to Ethiopia a port in British Somaliland if Emperor Haile Selassie would cede to Italy the Ogaden and Tigray. Furthermore, Britain and France would recognize Italian economic paramountcy in the rest of Ethiopia. In substance, the Ethiopian government was asked to surrender two-thirds of its territory and give Italy a de facto protectorate over what remained.This offer was not rejected out-of-hand by Mussolini, though he really wanted a formal Italian protectorate. Before negotiations could resume, the Hoare-Laval proposals were leaked to the French press. The result was a furor, especially in Britain. Baldwin dismissed Hoare (who was to resume a political role a few years later as British ambassador to Spain), blaming the initiative on Laval; British distrust of the French increased. Thus, not only was Mussolini in a position to conquer the territory, but the onus for the breakdown of negotiations could be put on the democracies. By May 1936, the Italian army had entered Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia. In July, the League of Nations lifted sanctions against the aggressor. Mussolini was able to claim that Italy had stood up to 60 nations arrayed against it.
Historical Dictionary of Modern Italy. Mark F. Gilbert & K. Robert Nilsson. 2007.
Look at other dictionaries:
Hoare-Laval Pact — The Hoare Laval Pact was a December 1935 proposal by British Foreign Secretary, Samuel Hoare and French Prime Minister Pierre Laval for ending the Italo Ethiopian War. The Pact offered to partition Abyssinia (as Ethiopia was then called), and… … Wikipedia
Hoare-Laval Pact — (1935) Secret plan to offer Benito Mussolini most of Ethiopia (then called Abyssinia) in return for a truce in the Italo Ethiopian War. It was put together by British foreign secretary Sir Samuel Hoare and French premier Pierre Laval, who tried… … Universalium
Hoare — is the name of: * C. A. R. Hoare (b. 1934), British computer scientist, creator of Hoare logic and the Quicksort sorting algorithm * Kelly Hoare (b. 1963), Australian politician * Mike Hoare (b. 1920), Irish mercenary leader * Prince Hoare… … Wikipedia
pact — /pakt/, n. 1. an agreement, covenant, or compact: We made a pact not to argue any more. 2. an agreement or treaty between two or more nations: a pact between Germany and Italy. [1400 50; late ME pact(e) < MF < L pactum, n. use of neut. of ptp. of … Universalium
Laval — /leuh val /; Fr. /lann vannl /, n. 1. Pierre /pyerdd/, 1883 1945, French lawyer and politician: premier 1931 32, 1935 36; premier of the Vichy government 1942 44; executed for treason 1945. 2. a city in S Quebec, in E Canada, NW of Montreal, on… … Universalium
Laval, Pierre — born June 28, 1883, Châteldon, France died Oct. 15, 1945, Paris French politician. A member of the Chamber of Deputies (1914–19, 1924–27) and later the Senate (from 1927), he also held a number of cabinet posts, and, as France s premier (1931–32 … Universalium
Hoare, Sir Samuel (John Gurney), 2nd Baronet — also called (from 1944) Viscount Templewood (of Chelsea) born Feb. 24, 1880, London, Eng. died May 7, 1959, London British statesman. As secretary of state for India (1931–35), he had the immense task of developing and defending in debate the new … Universalium
Hoare, Sir Samuel, 2nd Baronet — ▪ British statesman also called (from 1944) Viscount Templewood of Chelsea born Feb. 24, 1880, London died May 7, 1959, London British statesman who was a chief architect of the Government of India Act of 1935 and, as foreign secretary (1935) … Universalium
Laval, Pierre — (1883 1945) political figure A member of the Vichy government of German occupied France and a leader in the collaboration effort, Pierre Laval was born in Châteldon, Puy de Dôme and educated in law at Paris. In 1914, he was elected to the… … France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present
Anti-Comintern Pact — The Anti Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan (later to be joined by other countries) on November 25, 1936 and was directed against the Communist International (Comintern) in general, and the Soviet Union in… … Wikipedia